Tuesday, September 16, 2008
Wednesday, September 10, 2008
எச். ஏ. கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளை (ஹென்றி ஆல்ஃபிரட் கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளை)
எச்.ஏ.கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளை அவர்கள் 1827ம் ஆண்டு ஏப்ரல் 23ம் திகதி தென்னிந்தியாவில் திருநெல்வேலிக்கு அருகிலுள்ள கரையிருப்பு எனும் ஊரில் சங்கரநாராயணபிள்ளை அவர்களுக்கும், தெய்வநாயகி அம்மையாருக்கும் மகனாகப் பிறந்தார்.
இளமையில் வைணவ நூல்களையும், இராமாயணத்தையும் நன்கு கற்றுத்தேர்ந்த கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளை சமய வாழ்வின் நெறிமுறைகளை வழுவாது வைராக்கியத்துடன் பின்பற்றினார்.
கிறிஸ்தவம் வேகமாக பரவிக்கொண்டிருப்பதை அறிந்த கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளை, தாம் நற்செய்தி எதிர்ப்புக் கழகத்தில் சேர்ந்து கிறிஸ்தவத்தை எதிர்த்து செயல்படத் தொடங்கினார்.
1852ம் ஆண்டு சாயர்புரம் திருமறைக் கல்லூரியில் தமிழ் பண்டிதராக பணியமர்ந்த கிறிஷ்ணபிள்ளை அவர்கள் அங்கு மிஷனரியாகப் பணியாற்றிய "ஹக்ஸ்டபிள்" குடும்பத்தினரின் நற்குணச் செயல்களினால் பெரிதும் கவரப்பட்டார்.
ஏற்கனவே தமிழ்ப் புலமைபெற்றிருந்த அவர், வடமொழியையும் கற்றுத்தேர்ந்தார். அச்சமயம் கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளையின் சகோதரர் தனுக்கோடி ராஜீ மற்றும் முத்தையா ஆகியவர்கள் கிறிஸ்தவத்தை தழுவி மனம்மாறியமை இவரை அதிர்ச்சிக்குள்ளாக்கியது.
தனது சமய பக்திப்பாடல்களை நெஞ்சுருக பாடி வந்த அவர், அந்நாட்களில் மோட்சப் பிரயாணம், புதிய ஏற்பாடு, இளமை பக்தி போன்ற நூல்களையும் வேதாகமத்தையும் படித்தார். ஒரேநாளில் ஆதியாகமம் முதல் யாத்திராகமம் 20ம் அதிகாரம் வரை படித்தவர், அதில் கூறப்பட்டுள்ள சம்பவங்கள் அனைத்தும் உண்மையான நிகழ்ச்சி என்பதனை அறிந்துகொண்டார்.
அதன் பின் கிறிஸ்துவை இரட்சகராக கண்டு கொண்ட அவர், அவருடைய அன்பும் அருளும் அவரை ஏவியதால் கிறிஸ்துவுக்காக தன் வாழ்வை அர்ப்பணிக்க உறுதிகொண்டார்.
வேதாகமத்தில் தனக்கு ஏற்பட்ட ஐயங்களை தனுஷ்கோடி ராஜீவிடம் கேட்டு விளக்கம் பெற்று, கிறிஸ்தவமே மெய்யான வழி என்ற தெளிவையும் பெற்றுக்கொண்டார்.
1858 ஏப்ரல் 18ம் திகதி மயிலாப்பூரிலுள்ள தூய தோமஸ் திருச்சபையில் ஹென்றி ஆல்ஃபிரட் கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளையென்ற பெயருடன் திருமுழுக்கு ஞானஸ்நானத்தைப் பெற்றுக்கொண்டார். 1860ம் ஆண்டு இவரது மனைவியும் மூன்று பெண்பிள்ளைகளும் கிறிஸ்து இயேசுவை தங்கள் சொந்த இரட்சகராக ஏற்றுக் கொண்டார்கள்.
இலக்கிய வாஞ்சையுள்ள இவர், அதை தம்மை ஆட்கொண்ட இறைமகன் இயேசுவைப் பற்றிய உண்மைகளை பிறருக்கு எடுத்துரைக்க ஒரு கருவியாக பயன்படுத்தினார்.
திருநாம ஸ்மரணை, திருநாம பதிகம், காலைத் துதி, பிழைநினைந்திரங்கல், கிறிஸ்துவே எனக்கெல்லாம், கையடைப்பதிகம், விசுவாசக்காட்சி, வேட்கைப்பதிகம், அந்திப்பலி, கடைக்கணிப்பதிகம், இரட்சணிய சமய நிர்ணயம், போற்றித் திருவிருத்தங்கள், எண்பொருள் பதிகம் ஆகிய 13 தேவாரங்களும் அடங்கிய „இரட்சணிய தேவாரம் என்பன கிருஸ்ணபிள்ளையினால் இயற்றப்பட்டது.
"கிறிஸ்துவே எனக்கெல்லாம்" எனும் பதிகத்தில் எனக்கார் துணை யாருறவே என இறைவனை நோக்கிக் கேட்கும் அவரது முதற்பாடலான கீர்த்தனையில் பக்தி பரவசத்தை உணர முடிகின்றது.
தமிழ் பண்டிதராக சாயர்புர கல்லூரியில் பணியாற்றிய இவர், ஆத்தும அறுவடைபணியிலும் ஈடுபட்டார். ஊவாக்கர் குரு இவரை „மனிதரை பிடிக்கிறவர் என அழைத்தார்.
இவர் ஏராளமான கிறிஸ்தவ பாடல்களை எழுதினார். இவற்றின் தொகுப்பு
என அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. 1887 இல் தலைசிறந்த காப்பியமான இரட்சணிய யாத்ரீகம் எனும் நூலை எழுதினார்.
கிருஸ்ணபிள்ளை அவர்கள் "கிறிஸ்தவ கம்பன்" என அழைக்கப்படுகிறார். இவர் இயற்றிய சந்தாய் நிஷ்களமாய் பாடல் இன்றும் தேவாலயங்களில் விரும்பி பாடப்படும் கீர்த்தனையாகும்.
1900 பெப்ரவரி 3ம் நாள் தமது 73ம் வயதில் மரித்த இவர் சமாதானப்புரத்திலுள்ள கல்லறைத் தோட்டத்தில் நல்லடக்கம் செய்யப்பட்டார். இறைவனையே தன் துணையாகக் கொண்டு வாழ ஒரு மனிதன் முன்வரவேண்டும் என்பதற்கு கிருஷ்ணபிள்ளையின் இவ்வுலக வாழ்வு நல்லதொரு எடுத்துக்காட்டாக அமைந்தது..
கீர்த்தனை இறை இசைப் பகுதியைச் (வைதீக கானத்தை) சேர்ந்தது. சாகித்யம் இறைவன் அல்லது இறைவியைப் புகழ்வதாகவோ அல்லது அவர்களிடம் மன்னிப்பு வேண்டுவதாகவோ பக்தி நிரம்பியதாக இருக்கும். புராண நிகழ்ச்சிகளைப் பற்றியும் பக்தர்களின் உணர்ச்சிகளைத் தெரிவிப்பதாகவும் இருக்கலாம். எனவே கீர்த்தனைகளில் சுரப்பகுதியை (தாதுவை) விட சொற்பகுதியே (மாதுவே) முக்கியமானது என்று கருதப்படுகிறது.
Friday, September 5, 2008
Rev. N. Samuel (18 September 1850 - 20 May 1927), Professor in Divinity, Pastor, Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church (T.E.L.C.). He was a famous poet and author of many books. He was also the first member of the Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission (L.E.L.M.) Council.
AS A POET OF TAMIL LYRICS
Best known among his lyrics are,
En Meetpar Vuyirodirukayilay (என் மீட்பர் உயிரோடிருக்கயிலே)
Senaigalin Kartharey (சேனைகளின் கர்த்தரே)
Seerthiru Yegavasthey(சீர்திரி எகவச்தே நமோ நமோ) and
Gunapadu Paavi (குணப்படு பாவி)
He composed the college song Arulaar Putkarathil Thangi and designed the monogram for the Gurukul Lutheran Theological College. Incidentally, Vedanayagam Sastriar of Tanjore, Krishnapillai of Palyamkottai, and N. Samuel of Tranquebar were known as the triumvirate of Tamil Christian poets. One of his earliest compositions was about a journey to Tanjore called Thanjai Payan Padham. Another was Kallu Kummi, The Toddy Kummi, where the strong drink talks about her glories, which made the drunkard blush in shame. His book Gospel Lyrics contains 200 songs composed over a period of 60 years.
HIS TRANSLATION WORKS FROM GERMAN TO TAMIL
He has also put the following German hymns into Tamil:
Gott sei Dank in aller Welt, Kartharukku Sthothiram (கர்த்தருக்கு ஸ்தோத்திரம்)
O Haupt Voll Blut und Wunden, Erathangaayam Kuth-thum (இரத்தம் காயம் குத்தும் )
Nun freut euch, Gottes kinder all, Magizh Karthaavin Manthayae (மகிழ் கர்த்தாவின் மந்தையே)
Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend Aa Yesuvae, Neer Yengalai (ஆ ஏசுவே , நீர் எங்களை)
Wer weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende Naal Pome, Yen Saavu Velai (எந்த நாள் போம் , ஏன் சாவு வேளை)
Laudamus te Ummai Thuthikirome (உம்மை துதிகிரோமே )
Du, o schones Weltgebaude Veghuperuku-inbamaana (வெகுபெருக்கு இன்பமான )
He has written lots of books on various topics , was a profound pastor at his time and was a great theologian.
When I was a school boy at Nazareth in Tiruneveli district, we used to memories psalms and sing in the church. Now singing has become a thing of the past. It has been totally marginalized. I wanted to revive it. Thus was born the Keerthanaiyin Mahimai Trust” Says Seventy-four-year-old B.Thangasamy, a practitioner of Labor and Employment Law for four decades in Coimbatore and the Secretary of the Stanes Higher Secondary School, is unique in his passion. He loves singing, that too in carnatic style, but, not the ordinary songs.
He terms lyrics in Tamil as keerthanai. His interest in such keerthanais might have come from his great grandfather “MADURA NAYAGAM UPADESIYAR”, an exponent in religious discourses. Now there is a compilation of more than 450 Tamil lyrics penned by great scholars like Abraham Pandithar, Vedanayagam Sastriar, Krishnapillai, Rev.Santiago, and Madura Nayagam Upadesiyar, many written even 200 years ago. “And they are not translations of psalms.”
He terms lyrics in Tamil as keerthanai. His interest in such keerthanais might have come from his great grandfather Madura Nayagam Upadesiyar, an exponent in religious discourses. Now there is a compilation of more than 450 Tamil lyrics penned by great scholars like Abraham Pandithar, Vedanayagam Sastriar, Krishnapillai, Rev.Santiago, and Madura Nayagam Upadesiyar, many written even 200 years ago. “And they are not translations of pslams.”
He points out “ABRAHAM PANDITHAR WAS SUPPORTED BY SERFORJI OF THANJAVUR” and accorded a pride of place in his court.
This became an annual event and this year it was organised on the Independence Day.This is all due to the assistance from friends and well-wishers and we have not approached the Church. However, as there has been no proper organization for the work so far, we have recently formed the Trust with me as the chairman”.
In the keerthanai festival, singers from different parts of South India are invited. They can participate as individuals or groups. But we invite only quality singing. The festival is held only for a day, that too between 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. This year we had an audience of more than 1,000.”Mr. Thangasamy concedes that this effort is nothing but the replica of what some brethren in Chennai tried to do for a few years.”
Their attempt was so well appreciated that they were invited even in the U.S. where they toured almost a month singing in various places at the expense of the Tamils there.
He points out that even Coimbatore group has been invited to Colombo by the Tamils there who have promised to bear all the expense for the programme. Invite has come from Coonoor as well. He is happy to state that the Trust has started slowly building a corpus for carrying out its activities such as organizing competitions in schools for such performances and awarding prizes.
Gradually a lot of youngsters are getting involved, men and women, a majority of them below 40. What is imperative is to channel their interest”. In the Stanes School, earlier it used to be just a sermon and a prayer in the morning. Now we have introduced a new form of worship in which 90 per cent is singing. The response for this form has been so overwhelming that we are thinking of expanding the chapel”. Mr. Thangasamy admits that any effort to spread this form of worship to other parts of the State will require local support.
Abraham Pandithar, a doctor by profession, was the prime force behind the establishment of a sangam to debate issues relating to Carnatic music.
Written by a well-known doctor of Thanjavur, Abraham Pandithar, it raised ten questions on music and invited responses.
What is the origin of the sapta swaras?
Is it true that there are 22 srutis in an Octave?
If musicians of old, as legend has it, could sing a raga for days on end?
why do modern musicians not sing them for more than two hours?
Having learnt it from Dindigul Sadayandi Bhattar. Several musicians of south India were his friends and during his conversations with them he realised that while there was a considerable number of theories on srutis, swaras and their positions, none were easily accepted.
Making a study of such data as would tend to the development of south Indian music and to publish them.
To establish an Academy for the systematic teaching of South Indian music and its fundamental rules.
To arrange for examining of its pupils and others desirous of being examined and give them certificates.
— To deliberate upon and remove the doubts about some of the important items of Carnatic music.
— To reward distinguished vidwans by means of medals and honorific titles.
The Sangam met six times between May 27, 1912 and October 24, 1914 at the Karunanidhi Medical Hall. Sir V. P. Madhava Rao, the Tanjorean Dewan of Baroda, came to know of the Sangam and inspired by it, organised an All India Music Conference in 1916 at Baroda with the Maharajah, Sayaji Rao Gaekwad inaugurating it.
However, coming from a family that boasted of several practitioners in native Indian medicine, it was that field which attracted him and in 1879 he went to the Surli Hills near Madurai to study herbs. Here, he came into contact with a Karunanda Rishi who initiated him into Indian medicine, besides giving him recipes to produce several remedies. Returning to the plains, Pandithar married Gnanavadivu Ponnammal and the two were employed at the Lady Napier Girls School in Thanjavur as Tamil Pandit and Head Mistress respectively. Their methods of teaching won them acclaim. In 1890, the couple quit their posts, in order that Pandithar take up research in Indian medicine. Purchasing a large tract of land outside Thanjavur, Pandithar converted it into a farm for growing medicinal plants.
Named by him as Karunanandapuram, it was referred to as Pandithar Thottam by the locals. At his residence in the city of Thanjavur, Pandithar opened the Karunanidhi Medical Hall to which patients flocked. His Gorosanai pills in particular, became extremely well known not only in India, but also in the then Ceylon, Burma and the Strait Settlements.
Pandithar passed away on August 31, 1919, and was buried in the Thottam where he did his research. Today, the Lawley Hall, the Pandithar Thottam and the Karunanidhi Medical Hall, all of which are heritage landmarks in Carnatic music are well preserved by the Pandithar family.
The road leading to his house is named after him. Perhaps the greater tributes are the various conferences and research works in Carnatic music that followed his pioneering contributions.
Thursday, September 4, 2008
August 2, 1859-August 31, 1919
Rao Sahib Dr. Abraham Pandithar was born on the 31st of July 1860 at Sambavar Vadakarai near Tenkasi to Muthuswami Nadar and Annammal.. His ancestors traced their origin to the ancient Kun-Pandyan family.
EARLY LIFEHe was put in a school at Surandai in the district of Tirunelveli. He was sent to the C.V.E.S. Normal Teachers Training School at Dindigul, where he became a teacher after 3 year's study and training. His grand parents on both sides were medical practitioners, and were well versed in Tamil Medical Literature, and it was no wonder that his natural proclivities inclined towards medicine. He wished to initiate himself into the ancient system of Indian Medicine and with this objective in view he went to Surli Hills, near the sources of the Vaigai River in the summer of 1877.He came into contact with a great Maharishi called Karunananda Rishi who initiated him into the world of Indian Medicine with all its nuances. He also gave him the necessary recipes and the directions for preparing the world famed Karunananda Medicines. During the Christmas of 1882 he married Gyanavadivu Ponnammal of Nanjankulam and 3 months later the couple joined the Lady Napier Girls School in Thanjavur as Tamil Pandit and Head Mistress respectively.
ABRAHAM PANDITHAR AS AN MEDICINAL PRACTITIONER
The slow but steady popularity of these remedies induced Mr. Abraham Pandithar to the more intensive study of Tamil Literature relating to medicine. In 1890 he resigned his post as a teacher for the more humanitarian work of alleviation of pain and misery through Indian medicine. Gradually his research work into Hindu Medicine made steady progress and the Indian world, especially the Tamil world, in South Indian Medicine. Gradually his research work into Hindu Medicine made steady progress and the Indian world, especially the Tamil world, in South India, Ceylon, Burma the Strait Settlements which were all then an integral part of the British Empire started reaping the fruits of his patient labours. Among the special preparations for which Mr. Pandithar's name became famous were Sanjeevi Pills, Gorosanai Pills and Agharana Sanjeevi Pill etc.
ABRAHAM PANDITHAR - THE GREAT MUSICOLOGIST
Abraham Pandithar has made himself immortal in the history of South Indian Music by his two great volumes entitled "Karunamita Sagaram" which he published in 1917. It was a treatise on music in general and Tamil Isai in particular. Abraham Pandithar learnt music under Dindigul Sadayandi Pattar. He also underwent training under an unknown Nadaswaram artist at Thanjavur and blossomed into a knowledgeable musicologist and a princely patron. Rajah Sir Annammalai Chettiar, the founder of Annammalai University is considered as the founder of the Tamil Isai movement. Long before Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, Abraham Pandithar championed the cause of Tamil Isai by researching into the intricacies of Carnatic Music in the context of ancient Tamil literature on art and music.
THE KARUNAMRITHA SAGARAM
His magnum opus Karunamritha Sagaram is really an ocean as its name bears, of information on musical history, science, literature and musicians etc. An encyclopedia and a thesaurus, the 2 volumes of Karunamritha Sagaram sum up his lifetime's work.This exhaustive work which deals with the musical systems of South India, throws a flood of light on the literature and history of South India a general and that of the Tamil country in particular, as it's literature and music are inseparable. The indisputable originality displayed throughout the book by the author, the innumerable authorities quoted in support of statements, the wealth of illustration that is brought to bear upon various subjects, the fund of knowledge he possesses in many departments of life, the sparkling humour that now and then relieves the seriousness of such technical work and the fearlessness and thoroughness with which the author establishes his theory on Shruthis, all these clearly show his remarkable genius. His chief aim is to show what the music of ancient Tamil country was and how modern Carnatic Music is only a pale counterpart. In this arduous task he admirably succeeded.
THE SANGEETHA VIDYA MAHAJANA SANGAM
Apart from being a great musicologist, he was also a great organizer. He started the "Sangeetha Vidya Mahajana Sangam" at Thanjavur on December 14th 1912 with the support of stalwarts like Konerirajapuram Vaidyanatha Iyer, Harikesanallur Muthiah Bagavathar and Panchapekesa Bagavathar. In 1913 Muthiah Bagavathar promised to give free of cost one performance per annum, for the continued upkeep of its activities.Abraham Pandithar also made Thanjavur a national centre of music and culture by conducting all India Music Conferences at Thanjavur.
(Bishop Reginald Heber)
Brief History about the Song:
During the year 1819 in a City called Hornet, the day before the “Day of the Pentecost” on a Saturday Bishop Reginald Heber was asked to write a Song by the priest of the local St.Asaph church. The priest of that church was Bishop Reginald Heber’s own father in law. At once Bishop Heber went to one side of the room and wrote the song in few hours and the song was sung during the next day service at the very first time. Today this song is sung by Christians all over the world. This song has been translated to various languages and is found in almost all Christian song books today.
Bishop Heber was born at Malpas in Cheshire. His father, who belonged to an old Yorkshire family, held half the living of Malpas.Till he was 7 years old he was taught by his father, and till his 17 years of age he grew up and learned in his village. November 1800 entered Brasenose College, Oxford, where he proved a distinguished student, carrying off prizes for a Latin poem entitled Carmen seculare, an English poem on Palestine, and a prose essay on The Sense of Honour.
In November 1804, he was elected a fellow of All Souls'. After completing his university career, he went on a long tour of Europe Having taken holy orders in 1807; he took up the family living of Hodnet in Shropshire. In 1809 he married Amelia Shipley, daughter of the Dean of St Asaph. He was made prebendary of St Asaph in 1812, appointed Bampton lecturer for 1815, preacher at Lincoln's Inn in 1822, and Bishop of Calcutta in January 1823. Before sailing for India he received the degree of D.D. from the University of Oxford.
He had a dream he would go across India and would spread the gospel he toured various places in North India and from Calcutta he went to Srilanka and he me back to Calcutta. The next year he visited Madras and traveled to Cuddalore, Tanjore, and at last reached Trichy. On 1826 April 3rd he took the confirmation service in the Trichy Fort and during baptism he collapsed in the baptism room itself and breathed his last breath. The alter which he gave the last sermon is still preserved even today.
The BISHOP HEBER COLLEGE in Trichy was started in his remembrance; it got its Autonomous status and was nationally reaccredited with A + grade by NAAC.
LET THE MIGHITY NAME OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ALONE BE PRAISED.